Site Activity; Resources. Whereas Verres and his ilk appear as villains and perverts, he lavishes praise upon the inhabitants of Lampsacus and in particular Philodamus and his son. He was the best orator Rome produced, authored a large number of rhetorical and philosophical works, and also distinguished himself as a poet (though few of his verses have survived). 11 See below Section 5: The Roman extortion court. Cicero triumphed with the (surviving) speech Divinatio in Caecilium, in which he showed that his adversary was just not up to the task.nominis delatio and nominis receptio (c. 20 January 70 or soon thereafter): after his victory over Caecilius, Cicero submitted a formal charge (nominis delatio), which was accepted by the praetor (nominis receptio).inquisitio: to prepare his case, Cicero asked for, and was granted, 110 days, during which he travelled to Sicily to secure witnesses and documentation. In § 59, Cicero recalls one of the rare occasions in which Verres adorned the city of Rome with his plundered treasures for public viewing. upon the death of King Attalus III of Pergamum. Pronouns … and words of place … and time tell us such things about a situation as who is involved in it, and where or when it takes place.’ Throughout his corpus of speeches, which reproduce in written form a past or imagined performance, Cicero retains deictic features to recreate the dramatic setting: he wishes to generate the impression for his audience that they are actually there.). These included the nomination of Verres’ former quaestor Quintus Caecilius Niger as a rival prosecutor, which meant that Cicero had to argue for the right to bring Verres to justice in a preliminary hearing (he obviously won). See also Kennedy, G. (1994), A New History of Classical Rhetoric, Princeton; and, for the afterlife of ancient rhetoric, Kennedy, G. (1980), Classical Rhetoric and its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times, Chapel Hill. ! Their number indicated the importance of the magistracy: consuls had twelve, praetors six. Valet hoc proverbium et in eos qui multum intestinis suis commodis consulunt praeter honestatem. It never reconvened: Verres considered the case that Cicero presented against him during the first hearing so compelling that he went into voluntary exile. Aspendioi kitharistai – that is, cithara-players of Aspendos – were known for their custom of playing the instrument, designed for both hands, with their left hand only, which was placed between the cithara and the player (hence intus), without using the right hand that held the plectron and was placed ‘outside’, facing the audience. The evidence is murky.44 In 44 BC, when he wrote the de Divinatione, Cicero was familiar with local lore (Div. Cicero’s version of what happened at Lampsacus is the centrepiece of the first oration he prepared for the second hearing (i.e. 2.1 is primarily a warm-up to his account of Verres’ governorship of Sicily, to which he devoted the four subsequent speeches.20. Some may consider a recurrent um-ending plodding, or even cacophonous in principle, but here it produces an *onomatopoetic effect that enhances Cicero’s feeling of outrage at Verres’ misdeeds.43. Yet while it is the centre of Ver. When all is said and done, so Cicero claims repeatedly, Verres is unable to explain why what occurred did occur. iv §58) : non modo apud populum Romanum sed etiam ext. 158, in quibus est (itemque in ed. In turn, a basic grasp of historical facts and figures will aid in understanding our passage. quem omnia ‘intus canere’ dicebant: the antecedent of quem is citharistam; the relative pronoun quem is the subject accusative of the indirect statement introduced by dicebant; omnia is accusative object of canere. Both monographs are excellent pieces of scholarship as well as highly entertaining reads. 1, 2Ver. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/cicero-verres/53. The son of a first-generation senator, he did well for himself in the turbulent years of the civil war between Marius and Sulla and afterwards as a minor magistrate in the (wild) East during the period that saw Rome’s protracted struggle with King Mithradates of Pontus, not least by showing a fine sense of judgement when best to doublecross his superiors. 2.1, in the trial as a whole this particular oration (and hence the Lampsacus episode as well) is a bit of a sideshow. Political Speeches: A New Translation, Oxford, 3-12, and Lintott, A. ), Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East, Stuttgart, 15-42. True, consistency of character was an important argument in Roman law courts – anyone who could be shown to have a criminal record was considered more likely to have perpetrated the crime for which he was on trial, whereas an unblemished past could be marshalled in support of a plea of innocence. Section 1 provides a minimum of biographical information on Cicero and Verres. Yet after the so-called ‛First Illyrian War’ (229 BC) matters proceeded quickly. The full power of the tribunes was restored. The traits Cicero emphasizes in the former are his murderous villainy and conspicuous stupidity, whereas the latter comes into Cicero’s rhetorical crosshairs for his yellow-bellied cowardice. (1980), ’Patronage and Politics in the Verrines’, Chiron 10, 273-89. 12Verres’ advocate Hortensius did not expect this deviation from standard procedure and faced a difficult challenge. The Governor and his Entourage in the Self-Image of the Roman Republic’, in R. Laurence and J. Berry (eds. Hortensius, Cicero’s opponent, at the time; cf. authentifiez-vous à OpenEdition Freemium for Books. The staff included fairly high-ranking Romans with ambitions of entering the cursus honorum, that is, a political career involving magistracies and military commands. Many more detailed accounts of the circumstances of the trial exist than the bare-bone coverage provided here. Section 4 explores some pertinent issues in late republican history. Cicero presents the lurid details of Verres' alleged crimes in exquisite and sophisticated prose. 1.88: Amphilochus et Mopsus Argivorum reges fuerunt, sed iidem augures, iique urbis in ora maritima Ciliciae Graecas condiderunt), but this is just the sort of information he could have picked up during his pro-consulship in Cilicia in 51 BC. 129).14 With the actio prima completed on 13 August, the court adjourned for the Votive Games that began on 16 August (comperendinatio). Verres’ legateship in the Greek East fell into a period marked by much unrest across the entire region. 2 Settle, J. N. (1962), The publication of Cicero’s orations, Diss. 2.1.53 ff. Likewise, there was the prospect of a more favourable jury (that is, one more liable to corruption) since several of the chosen jury members were due to leave Rome in 69 BC to take up offices, ruling them out of jury duty.12 At one point, when it looked as if the ploy were to succeed, a third brother, L. Caecilius Metellus, who had taken over the governorship of Sicily from Verres as pro-praetor, tried to intimidate the Sicilians against giving testimony against Verres, boasting somewhat prematurely that Verres’ acquittal was certain and that it was in the Sicilians’ own interest not to cause difficulties. The passage under discussion here is no exception. CONTENTS Chronological Table 3 Marcus Tullius Cicero 4 Gaius Verres 5 The Context of the Case 5 Roman Oratory 6 The Text: Cicero, In Verrem II. viii Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53–86 their good sense and sensibility vastly improved the final product. 26As fans of the 1980s British sitcom Yes Minister by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn will know, the personnel of modern democratic nation-states involved in government consists in part of publicly elected politicians, who are voted into (and out of) office from time to time, and the bureaucratic functionaries of the civil service, whose positions are permanent, i.e. This is in direct antithesis to the emphasis on the public despoiling (palam), which everyone witnessed as onlookers (omnibus spectantibus). How would you describe his interaction with the senators sitting in judgement. His return to the status of privatus (‛an individual not holding public office’) set in motion the following procedural steps: postulatio (c. 10 January 70): in early January of 70, Cicero applied to the praetor presiding over the extortion court, Manlius Acilius Glabrio, for permission to prosecute Verres (postulatio).divinatio (c. 20 January 70): no doubt at the instigation of Verres or his advocate Hortensius Verres’ quaestor Q. Caecilius Niger also applied for the leave to prosecute; such rival requests entailed the need for a so-called divinatio, which consisted of a hearing before a jury presided over by the praetor at which the rival parties staked their claims. Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53 - 86 Latin text with introduction, study questions, commentary and English translation. Links to resources for finding sight reading passages of moderate difficulty, most with glosses. The Verrines are full of magnificent passages that illustrate Cicero at his best: as a superb raconteur who generates a gripping story out of precious few facts; as a heavy-hitting cross-examiner who lays into his adversaries with a remorseless flurry of rhetorical questions; as a master in the projection or portrayal of character (so-called ethos or ethopoiea) and the manipulation of emotions (so-called pathos); and, not least, as a creative individual gifted with an impish imagination who knows how to entertain. As already mentioned, Verres and his supporters tried to prolong the trial until the following year. How does geopolitical space feature in this paragraph? The so-called Verrine Orations thus comprise the Divinatio in Caecilium (‛Preliminary hearing against Caecilius’), which won him the right to act as prosecutor of Verres; the decisive speech he gave during the first hearing (in Verrem 1); and the material Cicero prepared for the second hearing, repackaged into five undelivered orations (in Verrem 2.1-5).1 The dissemination of this corpus of speeches constituted an unprecedented enterprise, ‛the largest single publication of [his] entire career, if not the biggest such undertaking in the first century B.C.’2 Cicero’s rationale for publishing the speeches against Verres in written form was most likely complex and will have involved his desire to consolidate his standing as an orator and the wish to broadcast the enormous amount of work he had put into the trial. But Cicero put an end to Verres’ crimes and his career: after the trial, Verres remained in exile until his death in 43 BC. ), Cicero the Advocate, Oxford, 187-213. Ven. Contrast the ‘leisurely’ and exactly parallel constructions vetus oppidum et nobile and (with added *hyberbaton) hoc signum … et illud with the absence of connectives here: Cicero uses none between reliquisse and evecta exportataque esse, ex fanis and ex locis publicis, or palam, spectantibus omnibus, and plaustris. For excellent and accessible treatments see Richardson, J. Oppidum est : in in, on, at; in accordance with/regard to/the case of; within in, auf, nach, an, gegen dans, sur, à, conformément à l'/ ce qui concerne les / le cas d'; dans in, su, su, in conformità con / per quanto riguarda / il caso di; all'interno en, sobre, en; de conformidad con / respecto a / el caso de, dentro de In addition, the portion of text under consideration here includes two paragraphs that are especially designed to appeal to the emotions. No clear consensus has emerged, not least since his practice will most likely have differed from case to case, ranging from almost instant release with only minor adjustments to significant revision and publication several years after the original delivery.17 The speeches that Cicero prepared for the second hearing belong to those that he anyway never gave, so here the question is moot. Aspendium a town in Pamphylia that came under Roman rule in 133 B.C. As a countermove and to accelerate proceedings, Cicero broke with conventions in his opening speech: instead of a lengthy disquisition setting out all of the charges (oratio perpetua), followed by a prolonged hearing of supporting witnesses, he quickly and summarily sketched out each of the charges and produced a limited number of supporting witnesses. 2.1.53-86 can serve as an excellent point of departure for branching out into Roman history and culture, especially the imperial culture of the late republic and themes to do with the imperial expansion of Rome across the Mediterranean world, in particular the Greek East. hoc dico, nullum te Aspendi signum, Verres, reliquisse: Cicero uses *homoioteleuton as a stylistic device to connect three main themes of the paragraph: (i) the town of Aspendos, (ii) its rich treasure of statues, and (iii) their plunder by Verres. Some Remarks on the Language of amicitia’, in A. Coşkun (ed. ACTIONIS IN C. VERREM SECVNDAE LIBER TERTIVS  Omnes qui alterum, iudices, nullis impulsi inimicitiis, nulla privatim laesi iniuria, nullo praemio adducti in iudicium rei publicae causa vocant providere debent non solum quid oneris in praesentia tollant, sed quantum in omnem vitam negoti suscipere conentur. intus – intimus: a *paronomasia; Cicero plays with the fact that the two words are etymologically related. Wenn ich bei euren Übersetzungen gucke, und bei Verrem 1,1 schaue, dann ist da ein ganz andrer Text. 38 Cf. 5428 (A. D. 1470): non modo Romae sed et (etiam Halm) apud ext. Still, it bears stressing that in the form we have them they are indistinguishable from the written versions of those speeches he actually delivered. 53-69 9 Notes 14 Vocabulary 22 The (fairly frequent) phenomenon of a relative pronoun assuming a twofold syntactic function is best illustrated by rephrasing the relative clause as a main clause: eum omnia ‘intus canere’ dicebant – ‘they used to say that he played all of his music inside’. Their critical engagement with the commentary and ability to improve upon my own reading of Cicero exemplify my notion of this volume’s ideal reader. Vous pouvez suggérer à votre bibliothèque/établissement d’acquérir un ou plusieurs livres publié(s) sur OpenEdition Books.N'hésitez pas à lui indiquer nos coordonnées :OpenEdition - Service Freemiumaccess@openedition.org22 rue John Maynard Keynes Bat. Is it the rational force of the better argument? He is entered under his nomen gentile ’Tullius, Marcus Cicero’ See Morwood (1999) 149 for a brief introduction to Roman names. None of this mattered: at the actual trial, Cicero triumphed resoundingly by out-witting, out-preparing, and out-talking the opposition. Creative Commons - Attribution - Pas d’Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 2.0 Royaume-Uni : Angleterre & Pays de Galles - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 UK. 4This introduction contains some background material designed to aid in the understanding of the rhetorical and historical dimension of the chosen passage. Login or signup free. 34 Lictors carried the fasces, a bundle of wooden sticks that symbolized the power of the office both domi and militiae (in the latter sphere, the fasces contained an axe). Pamphȳlia, -ae, [Παμφῡλία], f., Pamphȳlia, a narrow country on the south coast of Asia Minor, bounded on the east by Cilicia, on the north by Pisidia, and on the west by Lycia. 26 The judges are addressed in the second person plural or as iudices throughout our passage: 53: scitis, andistis; 57: cognoscite; 58: indices; 60: indices; 62: existimatis? 7 Wiseman, T. P. (1971), New Men in the Roman Senate, Oxford; Gildenhard, I. Alliteration of vi- [vi et virtute] The two alliterated words, vi et virtute, are both very masculine words, meaning force and virtue, and the repeated vi- sound being associated with these words draws attention to the qualities of Publius which Cicero is trying to present. I hope this is useful to those of you teaching or soon to teach this text. 27After their year as magistrates, consuls and praetors were customarily appointed as governors of provinces, assuming the title of pro-consul (‛acting consul’) or pro-praetor (‛acting praetor’) during their time in office (usually one year, but often prolonged). Unde omnes quotquot fures erant a Graecis Aspendii citharistae in proverbio dicebantur, quod, ut ille carminis, ita isti furtorum occultatores erant. (1984), Roman provincial administration, 227 BC to AD 117, Princeton; and Lintott, A. Some cite the five speeches designed for the second actio as 2Ver. Section 3 outlines the main modes of persuasion in (ancient) rhetoric and briefly indicates how Cicero applies them in our passage. (1993), Imperium Romanum. 100: Establishment of the province of Cilicia88-84: First War between Rome and Mithradates VI, King of Pontus83-81: Second War between Rome and Mithradates VI, King of Pontus73-63: Third War between Rome and Mithradates VI, King of Pontus29, 25The Romans organized conquered territories into so-called provinciae (provinces). The sight, so Cicero, even moved the presiding Roman magistrate Nero to tears – precisely the sort of response he wishes to generate in his present audience as well, grounded in sympathy and compassion for Verres’ victims and righteous anger at his abuse of power and violation of Roman values. Latin Cicero In Verrem 2.1 Chapter 53 Translation [Click Info tab for entire description] Hello! ; 76: pntatis? And Section 5 offers a short introduction to the type of law court in which Verres stood trial. The Second War between Rome and Mithradates VI, King of Pontus, had just come to an end, and the civic communities were groaning under the punitive sanctions imposed upon them by Sulla for the lack of support they had shown to Rome in the recent struggle.31. Salvete, ich bin in den letzten Zügen vor der Latinumsprüfung und verzweifle regelmäßig an Marcus Tullius Cicero. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live. intus canere: as discussed above, the expression refers to a technique of playing only that side of the cithara which is turned away from the audience: Cicero quips that Verres has outdone the activity represented by the statue by hiding it away in the innermost part of his house. 8 See Pliny the Elder, Natural History 34.6; Seneca the Elder, Suasoriae 6.24 (citing a brilliant passage from Asinius Pollio’s history, in which the Caesarian contrasts the ’brave death’ of Verres with the pitiable death of Cicero, in the context of an ingeniously malicious appraisal of Cicero’s character overall); and Lactantius, Divine Institutes 2.4.37.