extended elaboration likelihood model


In 2009, Angst and Agarwal published a research article, "Adoption of Electronic Health Records in the Presence of Privacy Concerns: the Elaboration Likelihood Model and Individual Persuasion". For instance, as the picture shows, a person is considering buying a car and he is persuaded by his friend to buy a certain model. Lee indicated, "these findings contribute to the ELM research literature by considering a potentially important personality factor in the ELM framework".[40]. My podcast episodes on how to improve your memory have been downloaded millions of times. To study either route of the elaboration likelihood model, the arguments must be designed for consistent results. In addition, there are different variables that a persuader can use to affect an individual’s ability to process a message (commonly used factors are the presence or absence of distractions, background knowledge of the topic, and the comprehensibility of the message or how easy it is to understand) that can enhance or reduce the amount of critical thinking that one would use to create elaborations from the message being presented. National HIV Prevention Conference, Petty R. and Cacioppo J., Brown W. and Dubuque I. The extended elaboration likelihood model highlights the wide range of motivations that individuals may have for selecting different media forms and the implications of these motivations for how the media messages are processed. Fighting the stigma: A unique approach to marketing mental health. "The elaboration likelihood model: current status and controversies.". Examining the persuasive effect of metaphor use in psychotherapy: An experimental test of contributing factors. Researcher Micheal Slater (2002) found that the term, issue involvement, was better understood as engagement or absorption or … What is Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)? ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Yocco, V. (2014). [61] Thus, repeated exposure towards the positive elements of counseling lead towards a greater elaboration and implementation of the central route to combat negative social stigma of counseling. They may also use their world knowledge to construct new theories about how their particular personality traits may predispose them to academic success (Kunda, 1987). Informative tweets (central) have been shown to produce a consistent impact on opinion convergence. The elaboration likelihood model can be effectively applied to advertising and marketing because the ultimate goal is to change the consumer's attitude in order to change their behavior. However, counselor credibility is strongly mediated by the degree to which the client understands the information conveyed by the counselor. What factors affect elaboration? For example, imagine that you’re approached at the supermarket and asked to sign a political petition. [31], The analysis of the different variables which mediate elaboration likelihood. [28] It was a product advertisement about a new disposable razor. For staff who have higher levels of elaboration likelihood, managers should emphasize benefits and values of new systems; For staff who have lower levels of elaboration likelihood, managers should provide expertise and credible sources; 2) Commonly speaking, providing strong arguments is more effective than relying on credibility; 3) Since normative influences lead to more affective responses and informational influences lead to more cognition responses, managers should implement different strategies to provoke staff's reaction, while 4) cognition responses are more important than affective responses when accepting a new system. Within the audio mode, there was no difference between weak and strong arguments with low credible sources; But, weak arguments with high credible sources generate more unfavorable thoughts than strong arguments. By giving participants with negative thought topics, experiment results shows that media modalities, source credibility, and argument quality have significant interactions in attitudes change and elaboration mounts: Within the print mode, the interaction between source credibility and argument quality was the least, partly confirmed that print mode would generate systematic processing. [34] However, high interactivity without the perceived informativeness would generate negative attitudes and low purchase intentions. The results supported Jennings hypotheses: articles with partisan cues would prevent partisans from learning more information in the article, compared to articles without partisan cues. If subjects are under conditions of moderate elaboration, variables might enhance or reduce the persuasiveness in an objective manner, or bialy motivate or inhibit subjects to generate a certain thought. [14] Overall, as people’s motivation and ability to process the message and develop elaborations decreases, the peripheral cues present in the situation become more important in their processing of the message. [40] Data on young customers' attitudes about a product were acquired through an online experiment with 278 college students, and two findings emerged after analysis. Dunbar et al. A List Apart. (1995) proposed a Combined Influence Hypothesis which argues that the central and peripheral cues worked in combination despite the variables of motivation and ability. In groups of 5 (no more, no less) you will be creating a YouTube video of one of the theories we covered in class. they would be persuaded through the peripheral route). Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is a noteworthy theoretical framework of social cognition used, to analyze information processing. The model implicitly argues that transportation should reduce total subtext processing, including counterarguments and intended elaboration. [74] For example, Choi and Salmon criticized Petty and Cacioppo's assumption that correct recall of a product led directly to high involvement. [31] Trampe et al. The model states that individuals can process messages in one of two ways: heuristically or systematically. They proposed that high involvement is likely to be the result of other variations, for example the sample population; and the weak/strong arguments in one study are likely to result in different involvement characteristics in another study. At higher levels of elaboration, people are more likely to think over an issue carefully, but, at lower levels, they may make decisions that are less carefully thought out. The model was introduced by Petty and Cacioppo over three decades ago and has been modified, revised and extended. When people are strongly motivated and have time to think over a decision, persuasion occurs through the central … Health Marketing Quarterly, 2, 89–101. Some ideological groups are considered as violent because they acquiesce use of violence to achieve their values. If you have plenty of time, you might read over the petition carefully and ask the petitioner questions on the issue. [57], Persuasion tactics conducted by Ideological Groups, Dunbar et al. ", Assumption 7: "Attitude changes that result mostly from processing issue-relevant arguments (central route) will show greater temporal persistence, greater prediction of behavior and greater resistance to counter-persuasion than attitude changes that result mostly from peripheral cues." When the operation processes at the low end of the continuum determine attitudes, persuasion follows the peripheral route. It is noteworthy that high elaboration does not necessarily lead to attitude change. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. [70] It is seen as incorrect if the ELM focuses on a quantitative explanation over a qualitative one; however one of the ELM's key points is that elaboration can range from high to low which is not incorrect as data from experiments conducted by Petty (1997)[72] as well as Petty and Wegener (1999)[73] suggest that persuasion findings can be explained by a quantitative dimension without ever needing a qualitative one. A strong argument is defined by Petty and Cacioppo as "one containing arguments such that when subjects are instructed to think about the message, the thoughts they generate are fundamentally favorable. This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 22:28. The ELM predicts that there are a variety of psychological processes of change that operate to varying degrees as a function of a person's level of elaboration. Examining elaboration likelihood model in counseling context. Core Texts. Although drawing on the fundamental conception from ELM, such as motivation, ability and continuum, the unimodel suggests a normative and heuristic rules for human to make judgement based on the evidence. #COVID19. [39], In 2009, another study about the effects of consumer skepticism on online shopping was conducted by Sher and Lee. When the operation processes at the high end of the continuum determine attitudes, persuasion follows the central route.[2]. The first are the factors that influence our motivation to elaborate, and the second are the factors that influence our ability to elaborate. Distractions (for instance, noise in a library where a person is trying to read a journal article) can decrease a person's ability to process a message. HSM is quite similar to Elaboration Likelihood Model, or ELM. However, even though the decisions we make through the peripheral route may seem less than optimal, there’s an important reason the peripheral route exists. For example, in marketing research, advertising leads to a favorable brand attitude as long as the arguments are strong and tedium is not induced. Other studies applied ELM in e-commerce and internet related fields are listed below for your additional references: Scholars have studied whether media modalities will serve as variable to affect which processing route to take. "[66] An argument that is universally viewed as weak will elicit unfavorable results, especially if the subject considers it under high elaboration, thus being the central route. For example, message variables are only influential when the central route is used and information like source variables is only influential when the peripheral route is used. [11], Under high elaboration, a given variable (e.g., expertise) can serve as an argument (e.g., "If Einstein agrees with the theory of relativity, then this is a strong reason for me to as well") or a biasing factor (e.g., "If an expert agrees with this position it is probably good, so let me see who else agrees with this conclusion"), at the expense of contradicting information. Developed elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (central and peripheral routes to persuasion) R. Zajonc studied the mere exposure effect (develop preference for things because near them more); also resolved problems with the social facilitation effect by suggesting that the presence of others enhances the emission of … Dunbar et al. 1986. p136. Attractiveness, mood and expertise are just a few examples of variables that can influence persuasiveness. Recent research has been conducted to apply the ELM to the healthcare field. Elaboration Likelihood Model February 12, 2021 / in Uncategorized / by admin . [51], Molina and Jennings focused on whether civil and uncivil behaviors on Facebook serve as cues to encourage users' willingness to participant in a discussion. [74], This area of critique basically lands on the nature of ELM being a dual-process model, which indicates that the receivers will rely on one of the routes (central or peripheral) to process messages and possibly change attitude and behaviour. Hopper, Elizabeth. When elaboration is lower, we’re more likely to be persuaded through the peripheral route. The ELM also predicts that any given variable can have multiple roles in persuasion, including acting as a cue to judgment or as an influence on the direction of thought about a message. [50], Scholars have also studied on how the ELM functions on Connective-collective action on social media. [9] However, Petty and Cacioppo noticed a major problem facing attitude and persuasion researchers to the effect that there was minimal agreement regarding "if, when, and how the traditional source, message, recipient, and channel variables affected attitude change". However, someone who is especially health-conscious might have a higher level of elaboration on this issue, so they might not find this ad especially convincing. Conversely, as argument scrutiny is increased, peripheral cues become relatively less important determinants of persuasion. Although using peripheral cues is a persuasive choice, advertisers need to be extremely careful in addressing some issues to avoid controversy, such as using sacred symbols as peripheral cues in advertising. They came up with four major research areas that have received most significant criticism:[74], The first critique concerns the model's initial development. Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo, The Elaboration likelihood model of Persuasion. It is a dual-route (central & peripheral), multi-process model of persuasive message processing. [10] Noticing this problem, Petty and Cacioppo developed the elaboration likelihood model as their attempt to account for the differential persistence of communication-induced attitude change. According to the theory's developers Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo, they intended to provide a general "framework for organizing, categorizing, and understanding the basic processes underlying the effectiveness of persuasive communications".[4]. [65], In designing a test for the aforementioned model, it is necessary to determine the quality of an argument, i.e., whether it is viewed as strong or weak. This indicates that peripheral route processes may have some influence on some voters; however, family and friends are likely to be more influential than those who do not have a personal connection to specific voters. In addition to varying involvement, the authors also varied source and message characteristics by showing a group of the subjects ads featuring popular athletes, whereas showing other subjects ads featuring average citizens; showing some subjects ads with strong arguments and others ads with weak arguments. The elaboration likelihood model can be applied to advertising and marketing. [13] Two advantages of the central route are that attitude changes tend to last longer and are more predictive of behavior than the changes from the peripheral route. This continuum can account for the swift between the central and the peripheral routes, but has yet been lack of comprehensive and empirical testing since the beginning. Central to this model is the “elaboration continuum”, which ranges from low elaboration (low thought) to high elaboration … [46] Bootb-Butterfield and Gutowski conducted an experiment by providing students with strong or weak arguments from high or low credible sources in print, audio, or video modes. Use the sign-up genius link to select your theory. It is not worthwhile to exert considerable mental effort to achieve correctness in all situations and people do not always have the requisite knowledge, time, or opportunity to thoughtfully assess the merits of a proposal. This is the stage where message characteristics and source characteristics are both taken into account. I.e, a minority with strong arguments but negative cues (e.g., different skin-color or bad reputation) did not succeed in convincing the majority, while a minority with weak arguments and positive cues (e.g., appearance or reputation) did succeed. However, when looking into advertising among young people, Te'eni-Harari et al. [48] Their hypotheses were based on restraint theory and the ELM. Attitudes towards a message can affect motivation. If they succeed in accessing and constructing appropriate beliefs, they may feel justified in concluding that they will be academically successful, not realizing that they also possess knowledge that could be used to support the opposite conclusion. Mackenzie et al (1986) advocated a Dual Mediation Hypothesis (DMH) that allow receivers to process the ad's content and its execution at the same time with reasonable vigilance. Since the ELM model provides an understanding how to influence attitudes, the said model could be leveraged to alter perceptions and attitudes regarding adoption and adaptation of change. speculated that some extreme groups desired to have tight control over their content so they had low tolerance for other's opinions.[58]. Affective tweets (peripheral) have been shown to be more inconsistent. One group per theory. [2] With the peripheral route, they are more likely to rely on general impressions (e.g. We remember the message as ideas and we will be … "Connective-collective activities" means ones are able to receive other's personal opinions and add responses to them, so the information will be accumulated and turned into a collective one.

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